|Geier, CS: Gesundheitsförderung an Schulen am Beispiel von Rauchprävention bei Schüler/innen der 5. Jahrgangsstufe an Gymnasien, (2009)|
Smoking prevention is an interdisciplinary approach in school and an important part of the syllabus-oriented health education. Therefore, open learning environments might be useful, e.g. the student-centred approach learning at workstations. This study examined the effectiveness of this learning method in the fifth grade of secondary school (Npupils = 415) with regard to different selected variables. The efficacy of an educational anti-smoking prevention unit was analysed by specifically focussing on the cooperative learning environment and the individual intrinsic motivation level with regard to factual knowledge and behavioural skills. The pupils were more satisfied with the skills-related workstations than with the knowledge-based ones; however, this did not correlate with the cooperative learning attitudes and intrinsic motivation as well. In general, the participants had positive attitudes towards cooperative learning with a strong correlation to intrinsic motivation. The more pupils were interested and felt competent and the lower rated their pressure, the higher scored their attitude towards group work. A special focus was lying on the comparison of two different learning settings, especially on pupils’ cognitive achievement and intrinsic motivation. Thus, the intervention was implemented both in conventional classrooms as well as in an extracurricular setting (youth camp). The classroom-based version resulted in an unexpected higher satisfaction as well as in a higher long-term cognitive achievement and higher interest scored as well as higher perceived competence scores. Furthermore, pupils’ smoking behaviour, their experience with and attitudes towards smoking and their self-regulation was examined. All participants were assigned to different smoking types based on their existent smoking status, however only a small number of pupils had already an own experience with smoking. In general, the intervention increased autonomous motivation. Concerning self-regulation a cluster analysis resulted in four different subgroups: controlled, undecided, autonomous and unmotivated pupils. Additionally, the smoking types were dedicated to those different subgroups. Pupils with more experience and probably more smoking risk belonged to the controlled, undecided or unmotivated cluster. Autonomous motivated pupils had generally less to no experience with cigarettes. To sum up, the study adds new evidences for the effectiveness of student-centred antismoking prevention. Such an approach could be implemented without a need of specific health providers.