|Hemp, C; Kehl, S; Heller, K-G; Wägele, W; Hemp, A: Ecological adaptations of grassland-inhabiting flightless Orthoptera: Fulvoscirtes and Acanthoscirtes, two new genera of African Karniellina (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Conocephalinae, Conocephalini), Systematic Entomology, 37(2), 387–407 (2012)|
Two new genera, Fulvoscirtesn.gen. and Acanthoscirtesn.gen., are established within the subtribe Karniellina of Conocephalini. Fulvoscirtes is based on Xiphidion kilimandjaricumSjöstedt, 1909 and Acanthoscirtes on Phlesirtes kevani Chopard from northern Kenya. The majority of Fulvoscirtes spp. are confined to open grasslands in the submontane zone of mountains. Fulvoscirtes contains eight species, seven of which are newly described in this paper. Three species and one subspecies occur on Mt Kilimanjaro. These are F. kilimandjaricum (Sjöstedt) constricted to the southern slopes, F. legumisheran.sp. confined to the northern side and F. sylvaticusn.sp. occurring on the western side of Kilimanjaro and on the eastern slopes of Mt Meru. Fulvoscirtes fulvusn.sp. is divided into two subspecies, F. fulvus fulvusn.ssp. found in the submontane zone of east Kilimanjaro and F. fulvus parensisn.ssp. in submontane to montane localities of the North and South Pare mountains. Fulvoscirtes fulvotaitensisn.sp. occurs in the Taita Hills of southern Kenya. Fulvoscirtes viridisn.sp. is described from savannah habitats between Mts Longido and Meru. Fulvoscirtes laticercusn.sp. is found in the Kenyan highlands, while the most southerly occurring species, Fulvoscirtes manyaran.sp., is found on Mt Hanang and the Mbulu highlands of northwestern Tanzania. Acanthoscirtes contains three species, of which A. albostriatusn.sp. is described newly from savannah habitas of eastern Kilimanjaro. Information is given on the ecology and the acoustic behaviour of some of the species together with keys to the genera of the Karniellina and the species of Fulvoscirtes and Acanthoscirtes. The genera of Karniellina probably evolved at a time when grasslands spread in East Africa due to an increasing aridification of the climate. The earliest lineage, the genus Karniella, is adapted to more forested habitats while the majority of the genera of Karniellina prefer open grasslands. Major splits within Karniellina probably occurred with the emergence of savannah grasslands due to the ongoing fragmentation of forest habitats several millions years ago, but most species within the genera are geologically young, their radiation being boosted by climatic fluctuations of the past 1–2 Ma.