|Deml, R; Dettner, K: Extrusible glands and volatile components of the larval gypsy moth and other tussock moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Entomol Gener, 19, 239-252 (1995)|
The extrusible osmeteria (funnel warts) of caterpillars of Lymantriidae were realized as exocrine glands, each of which contains 2 gland cells and 2 cuticular tubuli. On the osmeterial surface, cuticular evaporation structures could be detected by SEM. GC-MS analyses of caterpillar secretions revealed the presence of several, partially N-containing compounds (eg: 2-pyrrolidinone, nicotine, phenylacetaldehyde). Chemical composition of delivered secretions differs from corresponding hemolymphs and seems to be only slightly influenced by the foodplant chemistry. Presumably, the secretions of Lymantriidae serve as chemical defensive tools against microorganisms and predators.