Huwe, B; Bogner, C; Foken, T: Soil Measurements. In: Foken T. (eds) Springer Handbook of Atmospheric Measurements. Springer Handbooks. Springer, Cham, , 1625-1656 (2021), doi: [Link]
Key words: soil measurements, soil texture, pore size, water retention curve, ground heat flux, infiltration, runoff, soil moisture, time domain reflectometry
Atmosphere and soil are intensively coupled and interlinked in manifold aspects. The most relevant interfaces are the very soil surface, where water is stored and water fluxes are split into evaporation, runoff and infiltration, and the soil–root system, which controls transpiration. Hence, important topics are surface properties like roughness, wettability, sealing and crusting, water storage, water availability for plant roots, water retention, and conductivity characteristics of the subsurface soil. In this chapter, we give an overview of soil hydraulic measurements and analyses with relevance for the soil–plant–atmosphere system that have been used in the past and are still of high relevance in the context of ecosystem research. More specifically, we focus on devices and procedures that are fundamental for soil systems and highlight recent developments. We close this chapter with an outline of promising future developments.
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