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Jurasinski, G; Kreyling, J: Beyond richness - Upward shift of alpine plants leads to homogenisation of mountain summits, Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 711-718 (2007), doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2007)18[711:USOAPI]2.0.CO;2
Question: Does the upward shift of species and accompanied increase in species richness, induced by climate change, lead to homogenization of Alpine summit vegetation? Location: Bernina region of the Swiss Alps. Methods: Based on a data set from previous literature we expand the analysis from species richness to beta-diversity and spatial heterogeneity. Species compositions of mountain summits are compared using a two-component heterogeneity concept including the mean and the variance of Sørensen similarities calculated between the summits. Non-metric multidimensional scaling is applied to explore developments of single summits in detail. Results: Both heterogeneity components (mean dissimilarity and variance) decrease over time, indicating a trend towards more homogeneous vegetation among Alpine summits. However, the development on single summits is not strictly unidirectional. Conclusions: The upward shift of plant species leads to homogenization of alpine summit regions. Thus, increasing alpha-diversity is accompanied by decreasing beta-diversity. Beta-diversity demands higher recognition by scientists as well as nature conservationists as it detects changes which cannot be described using species richness alone.
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