Berg, B; Johansson, MB; Tjarve, I; Gaitnieks, T; Rokjanis, B; Beier, C; Rothe, A; Bolger, T; Göttlein, A; Gerstberger, P: Needle litterfall in a North European spruce forest transect, Reports in Forest Ecology and Forest Soils, 80, 1-31 (1999)
Litterfall data, both for needle litter and total litter were available for in all 34 plots in western Europe with mainly Norway spruce and some Sitka spruce as well as one site with Grand fir. Regressions were calculated for needle litterfall. Using all data the best simple relationship was obtained with annual average temperature (R2adj = 0.576; n=24;p<0.001), latitude with R2adj =0.504; n=34; p<0.001).Anual precipitation also gave a significant relationship. Basal area and stand age were less good predictor variables. For Norway spruce alone site index was the best single predictor (R2adj=0.612) using available data (n=11). For all data with Norway spruce latitude gave an R2adj of 0.416.
Multiple regression relationships for needle litterfall were highly significant with annual average temperature, plus annual precipitation, plus latitude giving the best value for R2adj with 0.706 explaining about 70% of the needle litterfall. Furthermore there was a highly significant linear relationship between needle litter and "total" litter, with R2=0.909.
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