Foken, T; Mauder, M; Liebethal, C; Wimmer, F; Beyrich, F; Leps, J-P; Raasch, S; DeBruin, H; Meijninger, WML; Bange, J: Energy balance closure for the LITFASS-2003 experiment, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 101, 149-160 (2010), doi:DOI: 10.1007/s00704-009-0216-8
In the first part, this paper synthesizes the main results from a series of previous studies on the closure of the local energy balance at low-vegetation sites during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. A residual of up to 25% of the available energy has been found which cannot be fully explained either by the measurement uncertainty of the single components of the surface energy balance or by the length of the flux-averaging period. In the second part, secondary circulations due to heterogeneities in the surface characteristics (roughness, thermal and moisture properties) are discussed as a possible cause for the observed energy balance non-closure. This hypothesis seems to be supported from the fluxes derived from area-averaging measurement techniques (scintillometers, aircraft).

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