Dise, NB; Matzner, E; Armbruster, M; MacDonald, J: Aluminium output fluxes from forest ecosystems in Europe: A regional assessment, J. Environmental Quality, 30, 1747-1756 (2001)
Data from 89 forested catchments and plots across Europe wereused to define empirical relationships between aluminum leaching and input fluxes of major ions, output fluxes of major ions, ecosystem parameters such as soil pH, and combinations of these. Forests that release dissolved Al to seepage or surface waters are located primarily in areas receiving the highest loading of acid rain, and the output flux of Al shows the highest correlations to the throughfall flux of inorganic nitrogen, the output fluxes of NO_3 , H_, and SO2_4 , and the mineral soil pH. If the speciation of Al is taken to be Al3_ (an overestimate), Al is released in a nearly 1:1 molar charge ratio with the sum of NO_3 and SO2_4 in runoff or seepage water over a wide range of basepoor bedrock types and acid deposition across Europe. The empirical data point to a threshold range of N deposition of 80 to 150 mmolc N m_2 yr_1 and a (less clearly defined) range of S deposition of 100 to 200 mmolc SO2_4 m_2 yr_1 above which Al released from forests exceeds 100 mmolc Al m_2 yr_1. Within this threshold range, the sites that release little or no dissolved Al are those that continue to assimilate input N and/or have high soil pH (_4.5).
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