Steinfeld, G; Raasch, S; Markkanen, T: Footprints in homogeneously and heterogeneously driven boundary layers derived from a langrangian Stochstic particle model embedded into large-eddy simulation, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 129, 225-248 (2008)
A Lagrangian stochastic (LS) model, which is embedded into a parallelised large-eddy simulation (LES) model, is used for dispersion and footprint evaluations. For the first time an online coupling between LES and LS models is applied. The new model reproduces concentration patterns, which were obtained in prior studies, provided that subgrid-scale turbulence is included in the LS model. Comparisons with prior studies show that the model evaluates footprints successfully. Streamwise dispersion leads to footprint maxima that are situated less far upstream than previously reported. Negative flux footprints are detected in the convective boundary layer (CBL). The wide range of applicability of the model is shown by applying it under neutral and stable stratification. It is pointed out that the turning of the wind direction with height leads to a considerable dependency of source areas on height. First results of an application to a heterogeneously heated CBL are presented, which emphasize that footprints are severely affected by the inhomogeneity.

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