|Kreyling, J; Haei, M; Laudon, H: Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests, Oecologia, 168, 577-587 (2012), doi:10.1007/s00442-011-2092-z|
Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow-cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow-cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (Styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 days versus 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5°C versus -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow-cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow-cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow-cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.
Physical constraints and biological controls of plant-environment interactions
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