This chapter summarizes the results of all 18 chapters and has a special focus on flux measurements in a changing environment, linking atmospheric turbulence and air chemistry, an optimal data quality protocol, and recommendations for the future of FLUXNET sites. It was found that windthrow and black beetle pests are responsible for the development of a larger heterogeneity of the forest site over the nearly 20-year observing period, with the consequence of an increase in carbon uptake. This heterogeneity, and not only the footprint and target area, should be included in a site description; however, such a heterogeneity index has yet to be developed. The developed coupling schema is extremely useful for interpreting chemical flux measurements, and it should be used together with the Damköhler number to characterize chemical reactions in a turbulent atmosphere in and above a forest. Furthermore, the possibility of characterizing the coupling should be implemented in each forest flux measurement program.
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