|Matzner, E; Zuber, T; Alewell, C; Lischeid, G; Moritz, K: Trends in deposition and canopy leaching of mineral elements as indicated by bulk depostion and throughfall measurements in Matzner, E.: Ecological Studies, Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing environment: a German case study, Springer Verlag, 172, 233-250 (2004), doi:10.1007/978-3-662-06073-5_14|
In the past three decades, numerous studies on the biogeochemistry of forested ecosystems in Europe and North America have shown that the deposition of mineral elements from the atmosphere strongly influences their functioning. Acidification of soils, surface- and groundwaters, N saturation and forest decline are key processes that change with rates of deposition of mineral elements (Ulrich 1994; Fenn et al. 1998; Evans et al. 2001). As an example of ecosystem functioning, the losses of elements from the ecosystem by seepage and runoff can be considered. On a European-wide, scale the deposition of S and N was shown to determine the Al losses from seepage and runoff in acid forest soils (Dise et al. 2001), the N deposition to determine the NO3 losses (MacDonald et al. 2002) and the Mg deposition to largely determine the Mg losses (Armbruster et al. 2002).