Catching the Plume – From Field Measurements to Atmospheric Simulation Chamber Studies of Volcanic Gas Emissions

Julian Rüdiger1, Nicole Bobrowski2, Marcello Liotta3, Alexandra Gutmann4, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz2, J. Maarten de Moor5, Marco Liuzzo3, Andreas Held1, Stefan Schmitt2, Thorsten Hoffmann4
1 Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Bayreuth
2 University of Heidelberg
3 INGV Palermo, Italy
4 University of Mainz
5 OVSICORI, Cost Rica

O 4.1 in BayCEERversity: Across scales, compartments & communities

12.10.2017, 15:30-15:45, H36, NW III

Volcanoes are a natural source of several reactive gases (e.g. sulfur and halogen containing species), as well as non-reactive gases (e.g. carbon dioxide). Besides that, halogen chemistry in volcanic plumes might have important impacts on atmospheric chemistry, carbon to sulfur ratios and sulfur dioxide fluxes are important established parameters to gain information on subsurface processes and are used for activity assessments. Halogen compounds are of particular interest as it has been shown that reactive species (e.g. BrO) are formed from the initial emitted hydrogen halides in the aging plume. For this, heterogeneous chain reaction mechanisms have been proposed involving ozone depletion. Additionally, a decrease in the BrO/SO2 ratio with activity increase has been observed. The utilization of the BrO/SO2 ratio as a potential precursory observable is subject of current studies, as both gases are readily measurable by UV spectrometry. Herein, recent advancements in gas emission measurements will be presented, including the following:

  1. Development and application of gas diffusion denuder sampling for reactive halogen species in volcanic plumes at Mt. Etna, Italy.
  2. Multicopter measurements of volcanic gas emissions using in-situ gas sensor and sampling instruments for the determination of CO2, SO2 and halogens.
  3. In-situ observation of halogen activation in the plume of Mt. Masaya, Nicaragua.

Furthermore, the conceptual idea of atmospheric simulation chamber studies of volcanic plumes will be introduced and the setup of the BayCEER-based project HALVIRE (HALogen compounds of Volcanic Origin In Reaction Chamber Experiments) will be presented.



Keywords: volcanic gas emissions, halogen chemistry, unmanned aerial vehicles, atmospheric simulation chamber,

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