|Yanez H., JE; Wang, Z; Lege, S; Obst, M; Roehler, S; Burkhardt, CJ; Zwiener, C: Application and characterization of electroactive membranes based on carbon nanotubes and zerovalent iron nanoparticles, Water Research, 108, 78-85 (2017), online: 22.10.2016, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.055 [Link]|
Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes were produced from multi-walled CNTs by a filtration technique and used for the removal of the betablocker metoprolol by adsorptive and reactive processes. The reactivity of CNT membranes was enhanced by nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (NZVI) which was deposited on the CNT membranes by pulsed voltammetry applying defined number of pulses (Fe-CNT (100) and Fe-CNT (400) membranes). Surface analysis with SEM showed iron nanoparticle sizes between 19 and 425 nm. Pore size distribution for the different membranes was determined by capillary flow porometry (Galwick fluid). Pore size distribution for all membranes was similar (40 nm), which resulted in a water permeability typical for microfiltration membranes. Metoprolol was removed by the CNT membrane only by sorption, whereas the Fe-CNT membrane revealed also metoprolol degradation due to Fenton type reactions. Further application of electrochemical potentials on both the CNT and the Fe-CNT membranes improved the removal efficiencies to 74% for CNT membranes at 1 V and to 97% for Fe-CNT (400) membranes at 1 V. Seven transformation products have been identified for metoprolol by high-resolution mass spectrometry when electrochemical degradation was performed with CNT and Fe-CNT membranes. Additionally, two of the identified transformation products (TPs) were also observed for Fe-CNT membranes without the application of electrochemical potential. However, only 10% of the degraded metoprolol could be explained by the formation of TPs.