|Panin, GN; Foken, T: Air-sea interaction including a shallow and coastal zone, Journal of Atmospheric & Ocean Sciences, 10, 289-305 (2005), doi:10.1080/17417530600787227|
We performed special experimental and theoretical research concerning the energy-mass exchange process in shallow waters, which took into account the influence of the basin depth on the evaporation and sensible heat exchange. Data was obtained from deep water basins, as well as from shallow waters, at an open sea, as well as in its coastal zone. A new parameterization model of evaporation and friction velocity from shallow water surfaces under different wind velocities was investigated. Results of models and measurements of the energy/mass exchange intensity of a small shallow lake (LITFASS-experiments) were compared. The validation of these models with the eddy-covariance measurements of the LITFASS-98 and LITFASS-2003 experiments showed good results for the wind sector, with good fetch conditions. Therefore, the models examined may be used for calculating the evaporation of lakes where a standard data set of wind velocity, air and water temperature, air moisture and the depth of the lake is available. In should be remembered that in a coastal zone the roughness of the water surface is transformed and therefore there are additional calculation difficulties for the intensity of the energy-mass exchange. Based on our experimental data of the basin depth influence on the water/atmosphere exchange, a new model for the calculation of the energy/mass exchange in a coastal zone was developed. Our new model in combination with the empirical dependence for the calculation of the energy/mass exchange in a coastal zone allows calculation of the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes values at different distances from a shore.
Human-Wildlife Conflicts (HWC) in Southern Africa
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