Vertical Transports of Energy and Trace Gases at Anchor Stations and Their Spatial and Temporal Extrapolation under Complex Natural, Conditions


From 04/2001 to 09/2004

Principal Investigator: Thomas Foken
Staff: Mathias Göckede, Claudia Liebethal, Matthias Mauder

The main objective of the joint research project VERTIKO (VERTIcal Transports of Energy and Trace Gases at Anchor Stations and Their Spatial and Temporal Extrapolation under KOmplex Natural Conditions) was the measurement and modelling of vertical transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer as an aggregated mean over inhomogeneous terrain. The most important question was, which spatial and temporal resolution had to be considered in models for various atmospheric processes in order to adequately include the interaction between surface and atmosphere. Furthermore, studies should be conducted to which degree a high spatial differentiation could be abandoned without neglecting significant feedback processes. As the required horizontal resolution was dependant on the specific problem and the actual degree of heterogeneity of the observed terrain, a precise target area was defined: The chosen terrain stretched between the Lindenberg area (Oder-Spree-Lake district) in the north and the Ore-mountains in the south, with an extension of approximately 100 km in east-west direction, and 300 km in north-south direction. This area is a typical example for the transition from a lowland with large open plains to a low mountain range, and comprises the basic land use types of Germany (grassland, agricultural land, forest, urban area, water area). As supplementary data sets, numerous continuous measurement campaigns and data from projects with a similar objective were employed (e.g. the LITFASS experiment of the German Meteorological Service, and the SANA or ERZ-project, respectively, of the BMBF). The general basis for the studies, analyses and modelling of the processes in question was formed by continuous measurements over many years at anchor stations in the target area (and also at additional external test sites), which were supported by several special observation periods and numerous remote sensing techniques. The sub-project carried out at the Department of Micrometeorology (group UBT1) focussed on the quality assessment and quality control of the data sets obtained at the anchor stations and during the special observation periods, respectively. Measurements of exchange processes of energy and trace gases between surface and atmosphere are based on measurement techniques and concepts that require horizontal homogeneous surface conditions, stationarity of the flow and no advection. Conditions as such can in principle not be realised during field experiments. As a consequence, most measurements are performed in areas that do not fulfil the listed requirements. To allow for a correct interpretation of the data sets obtained during these experiments, the influence of the non-ideal boundary conditions on the data quality has to be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In the frame of the VERTIKO-project, especially the focus on the determination of aggregated fluxes in heterogeneous terrain and on the influence of land use changes demanded explicitly a control of the compliance of the theoretical requirement for micrometeorological measurements. Thus, the main objective of the sub-project of the group UBT1 was to quantify and classify the influence of non-homogeneous terrain structures on the measurement stations of the VERTIKO-project, and to assess the influence of surface heterogeneity on the results of the obtained fluxes of energy and trace gases and on the model parameterisations. The work focussed on the anchor stations at Lindenberg, Melpitz and Tharandt. In addition, detailed processes were studied at test stations. This task required the detection of heterogeneous structures in the fetch of the measured fluxes with footprint models, and the description of the data quality of the fluxes in dependence on the source areas. The assignment of sources areas to the fluxes measured furthermore allowed for a link between the data obtained at the anchor stations with remote sensing information and data produced by models.


List of publications of this Project

Göckede, M; Thomas, C; Markkanen, T; Mauder, M; Ruppert, J; Foken, T: Sensitivity of Lagrangian Stochastic footprints to turbulence statistics, Tellus, 59B, 577-586 (2007), doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00275.x -- Details
Göckede, M; Thomas, C; Markkanen, T; Ruppert, J; Mauder, M; Foken, T: On the sensitivity of Lagrangian stochastic footprint modeling to within canopy flow statistics derived from wavelet analysis, Report Series in Aerosol Science, 79, 247-249 (2006)
Reithmaier, L; Göckede, M; Markkanen, T; Knohl, A; Churkina, A; Rebmann, C; Buchmann, N; Foken, T: Use of remotely sensed land use classification for a better evaluation of micrometeorological flux measurement sites, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 84, 219-233 (2006), doi:DOI 10.1007/s00704-005-0168-6 -- Details
Göckede, M; Markkanen, T; Hasager, CB; Foken, T: Update of footprint-based approach for the characterisation of complex measurement sites, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 118, 635-655 (2006), doi:DOI:10.1007/s10546-005-6435-3 -- Details
Reth, S; Göckede, M; Falge, E: CO2 efflux from agricultural soils in Eastern Germany - commparison of a closed chamber system with eddy covariance measurements, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 80, 105-120 (2005) -- Details
Rebmann, C; Göckede, M; Foken, T; Aubinet, M; Aurela, M; Berbigier, P; Bernhofer, C; Buchmann, N; Carrara, A; Cescatti, A; Ceulemans, R; Clement, R; Elbers, JA; Granier, A; Grünwald, T; Guyon, D; Havránkova, K; Heinesch, B; Knohl, A; Laurila, T; Longdoz, B; Marcolla, B; Markkanen, T; Miglietta, F; Moncrieff, JB; Montagnani, L; Moors, E; Nardino, M; Ourcival, J-M; Rambal, S; Rannik, Ü; Rotenberg, E; Sedlak, P; Unterhuber, G; Vesala, T; Yakir, D: Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 80, 121-141 (2005) -- Details
Foken, T; Leclerc, MY: Methods and limitations in validation of footprint models, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 127, 223-234 (2004) -- Details
Culf, AD; Foken, T; Gash, JHC: The energy balance closure problem in Kabat et al.: Vegetation, water, humans and the climate. A new perspective on an interactive system, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 159-166 (2004)
Foken, T; Göckede, M; Mauder, M; Mahrt, L; Amiro, BD; Munger, JW: Post-field data quality control. in Lee X., Massman W, Law B : Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 181-208 (2004)
Rebmann, C; Anthoni, P; Falge, E; Göckede, M; Mangold, A; Subke, J-A; Thomas, C; Wichura, B; Schulze, ED; Tenhunen, JD; Foken, T: Carbon budget of a spruce forest ecosystem in Matzner, E.: Ecological Studies, Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing environment: a German case study, Springer Verlag, 172, 143-160 (2004)
Göckede, M; Rebmann, C; Foken, T: A combination of quality assessment tools for eddy covariance measurements with footprint modelling for the characterisation of complex sites, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 127, 175-188 (2004) -- Details
Beyrich, F; Adam, W; Bange, J; Behrens, K; Berger, FH; Bernhofer, C; Bösenberg, J; Dier, H; Foken, T; Göckede, M; Görsdorf, U; Güldner, J; Hennemuth, B; Heret, C; Huneke, S; Kohsiek, W; Lammert, A; Lehmann, V; Leiterer, U; Leps, J-P; Liebethal, C; Lohse, H; Lüdi, A; Mauder, M; Meijninger, WML; Mengelkamp, H-T; Queck, R; Richter, SH; Spieß, T; Tittebrand, A; Weisensee, U; Zittel, P: Verdunstung über einer heterogener Landoberfläche, Das LITFASS-2003 Experiment, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Forschung und Entwicklung, Arbeitsergebnisse, 79, 100 S. (2004)
Raabe, A; Foken, T: Die Höhe der internen Grenzschicht im Windfeld nach einer sprunghaften Änderung der aerodynamischen Rauhigkeit der Unterlage - Beispiel Küste. In: F. Chmielewski and T. Foken (Editors), Beiträge zur Klima und Meeresforschung. Eigenverl, , 227-237 (2003) -- Details
Foken, T: Besonderheiten der Temperaturstruktur nahe der Unterlage, In: F-M. Chmielewski and T. Foken (Editors), Beiträge zur Klima- und Meeresforschung. Eigenverlag Chmielewski & Foken, Berlin und Bayreuth, , 103-112 (2003) -- Details
Aubinet, M; Clement, R; Elbers, JA; Foken, T; Grelle, A; Ibrom, A; Moncrieff, JB; Pilegaard, K; Rannik, Ü; Rebmann, C: Metodology for data acquisition, storage and treatment in Beck E., Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R,: Ecological Studies, Springer Verlag, 163, 9-35 (2003) -- Details
Foken, T: Angewandte Meteorologie, Mikrometeorologische Methoden, , Springer, 289 S. (2003) -- Details
Liebethal, C; Foken, T: On the Significance of the Webb Correction to Fluxes , Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 109, 99-106 (2003) -- Details
Thomas, C; Foken, T: Re-evaluation of integral turbulence characteristics and their parameterisations. 15th Conference on Turbulence and Boundary Layers, Wageningen, NL, 15-19 July 2002, Am. Meteorol. Soc., 129-132 (2002)
Beyrich, F; Richter, SH; Weisensee, U; Kohsiek, W; Lohse, H; DeBruin, H; Foken, T; Göckede, M; Berger, FH; Vogt, R; Batchvarova, E: Experimental determination of turbulent fluxes over the heterogeneous LITFASS area: Selected results from the LITFASS-98 experiment, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 73, 19-34 (2002)

Related links:
  • Experiment: LITFASS-2003: Lindenberg, 19.05.-20.06.2003
  • Experiment: VERTIKO-STINHO1: STruktur des turbulenten Transports über INHOmogener Unterlage, Melpitz, 24.09.2001 bis 12.10.2001
  • Experiment: VERTIKO-STINHO2: STruktur des turbulenten Transports über INHOmogener Unterlage, Lindenberg, 14.06. 2002 - 10.07. 2002
  • Field of research: QA/QC: Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Micrometeorological Measurements
  • PhD Thesis: Adoption of footprint methods for the quality control of eddy-covariance measurements
  • PhD Thesis: On the determination of the ground heat flux in micrometeorology and its influence on the energy balance closure
  • PhD Thesis: Quality assurance for eddy covariance measurements of turbulent fluxes and its influence on the energy balance closure problem
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